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The Guide to Aromatherapy

The Guide to Aromatherapy

Descriptions of Essential and Carrier Oils and some uses
 Illustration
by Diana Lambourne

 
 
 
Some oils have a new section added.. "Main
constituents:-" All oils have many more chemical parts to them than
described here.
(Family, )
Warning

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Ajowan
Trachyspermum ammi (Family, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae))

Source: fruits or seeds or
whole aerial plant, India
production method: steam distillation
aroma type: herbaceous spicy
Safety Information: untested oil. Avoid during
pregnancy, possible dermal sensitization Irritant.

Allspice Berry
Pimenta officinalis (Family, Myrtaceae)

Its spicy scent often used in potpourris. and used to flavor
beverages, sweets and other foods. warming, cheering, sense enhancing. Warning
Avoid use in Sun.

AKA Pimento P. dioica.
Source: fruits, Cuba, Mexico and United States
production method: steam distillation
aroma type: spicy
traditional use: aphrodisiac
blends well with: ginger, geranium, lavender,
labdanum, ylang ylang, patchouli, orris
Safety Information: use ½ recommended dilution
or less; can cause skin irritation

Almond (sweet)
Prunus amygdalus, P. dulcis (Family, Rosaceae)

Obtained from the Nut of the tree and native to Asia and the
Mediterranean this oil is a favourite Carrier oil for Essential oil
aromatherapy blends. it is used in itself for moisturizing skin.

Ambrete seed
Abelmoscyhus moschatus AKA Hibiscus abelmoschus (Family,
Malvaceae)
Perfume Note=Middle

This has a sweet, floral musky, aroma which gets better
after a few months of storage, and works well with many other oils. Used in
Muscle aches and pains related to fatigue and poor circulation. Can be used
as an anti-depressant
Source: seed, France
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: balancing calming
aroma type: spicy
traditional use: emollient aphrodisiac
blends well with: neroli,olibanum, rose,
sandalwood, other floral oils

Amyris
Amyris balsamifera, Schimmelia oleifera (Family,
Rutaceae)
Perfume Note=Middle/Base

Calming and an aid to stress relief. It has sedative
properties and helps meditation. AKA Sandalwood Amyris
Source: wood, West Indies
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: grounding, energizing.
toning, balancing
aroma type: woodsy
traditional use: muscle relaxant, emollient,
soothing agent, stimulant
blends well with: lavandin, citronella,
cedarwood

Angelica Root
Angelica archangelica, A. officinalis, A. glauca (Family,
Apiaceae [Umbelleferae])
Perfume Note=Base to middle
production method: steam
distillation
Source: Root, France India, Germany, Hungary
blends well with: patchouli, clary sage, citrus
oils, frankincense
Safety Information: Avoid during pregnancy
Avoid use in the sun

A warm, musky, earthy aroma with excellent staying power.
Only small quantities are needed to create an effect in a perfume.
Aromatherapy: anchoring, restorative, strengthening, used for depression.
Oil can also come from the seed.

Main Constituents:- Phellandrene, pinene, limonene, linalol,
borneol.

 

Aniseed
Illicium verum (Family, Illiciaceae) production
method: steam distillation
production method: steam distillation
Source: seed, India, China, Spain
blends well with: Lavender, orange, pine, bay
Safety Information: should be avoided by
pregnant women

The seeds of aniseed have long been used as an aid to
digestion. The Essential oil has a sweet, fresh aroma and can be used for
any cramping, indigestion, or digestive problems, (though not internally),
and for spasmodic coughs. AKA Star Anise.

 

Anise
Pimpinella anisum, Anisum officinalis (Family,
Apiaceae [Umbelliferae])
Perfume Note=Middle

Cheering, sense enhancing, mildly euphoric. Added to
perfumes for a rich, sweet fragrance. Aids relaxation and emotional balance.
Source: ripe fruit, China
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: energizing, toning
aroma type: anise
traditional use: deodorant
blends well with: amyris, bay, cardamon,
caraway, cedarwood, coriander, fennel, galbanum, mandarin
Safety Information: slight dermal toxicity; use
recommended dilution or less

Apricot Kernel
Armeniaca vulgaris, Prunis armeniaca (Family,
Rosaceae)

This nut oil, from Asia, is another oil used as a carrier.
Believed to be good for the skin.

 

Arjowan
Trachyspermum ammi, T. copticum (Family, Apiaceae)

Good for circulation and muscular problems. Warning
Due to slight toxicity use sparingly, especially if you have sensitive skin.

 

Armoise
Artemisia, vulgaris
Source: entire plant, France
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: balancing, stimulating,
energizing, toning
aroma type: aromatic
traditional use: emollient, soothing agent,
muscle relaxant
blends well with: patchouli, rosemary, lavandin,
sage, clary sage, cedarwood, cedar leaf
Safety Information: should be avoided by
pregnant women

Avocado
Persea americana, Persea gratissima (Family,
Lauraceae)

This oil is added to carrier oils, up to 20% as an aid to
skin moisturizing. Warning May be toxic in
large amounts

 
Babassu
Orbignya barbosiana (Family, Arecaceae)

From the Amazon this Palm tree is used for many purposes.
The oil is from the nut and may be used as a carrier oil. This soothing oil
has been used for stretch marks.

 

Balsam Peru
Myroxylon balsamum var. pererae (Family, Fabaceae [Legumunosae])
Perfume Note=Base

Used on chafed skin to soothe. Exotic aroma, anchoring,
strengthening and imparts a rich, earthy scent to perfumes..

 

Basil
Osimum basilicum (Family, Labiatae)
Perfume Note=Top

Invigorates body and spirit: helps refresh the mind allowing
concentration, especially when tired. A good nerve tonic after a stressful
day. It has a sweet liquorice-like fragrance, Blends well with Lavender,
Bergamot, Clary Sage and Geranium. Warning Do
not use Basil during pregnancy, can be a skin irritant.

Also East Indian Basil, (O. gratissimum) and Hairy Basil (O.
Canum) and lots more.
Source: leaves, Madagascar, France
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: soothing, energizing,
toning
aroma type: anise
traditional use: deodorant, soothing agent,
insect repellent, muscle relaxant
blends well with: bergamot, black pepper, clary
sage, geranium, hyssop, lavender, marjoram, neroli,
Safety Information: use recommended dilution or
less

Main Constituents:- Linalol, methyl chavicol, eugenol,
limonene, citronella.

 

Bay Leaf
Pimenta racemosa (Family, Myrtaceae)

Uplifting. A good scalp and hair tonic, and for Respiratory
disorders and depression. Can be stimulating to the memory.

AKA West Indian Bay. Laurel AKA Sweet Bay. (Laurus noblis)
is also a Bay.
Source: leaves, West Indies
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: stimulating, energizing
aroma type: spicy
traditional use: aphrodisiac
blends well with: coriander, eucalyptus,
ginger, juniper berry, lavender, lemon, marjoram, orange, rose, rosemary,
thyme, ylang ylang
Safety Information: use ½ recommended dilution
or less; can cause skin irritation

Beechnut
Fagus grandifolia, F. sylvatica (Family, Fagaceae)

A soothing oil from the nut is used as a carrier.

 

Ben
Moringa oleifera, M. pterygosperma (Family,
Moringaceae)

From the seeds this oil is used in skin care.

 

Benzoin tincture
Styax benzoin, S. tonkinensis (Family, Styacaceae)
Perfume Note=Base

Soothes, stimulates, comforts and warms. Add to carrier
oil/cream for protecting skin against chapping or cracking.

AKA Friars Balsam. Other Oils; Balsam of Tolu (Myroxylon
balsamum), Balsam of Peru (M. balsamum var, Pereirae), Styrax (Liquidamber
orientalis).

 

Bergamot
Citrus bergamia (Family, Rutaceae)
Perfume Note=Top

Relaxes and refreshes and is good for confidence building.
Uplifts the spirit and emotions with its delicious fresh and invigorating
citrus fragrance. Useful for caring for oily and blemished skin. Lovely
light citrus aroma. Use in vaporiser to disperse unpleasant odours. It is
familiar to many as the flavouring in Earl Grey Tea. Warning
Do not apply to the skin before going out into the sun - It can increase the
susceptibility of the skin to severe burning.

A bergapten free Bergamot is available which reduces the
susceptability to photosensitising.
Source: fruit peel, Italy, Ivory Coast
production method: expression
aromatherapy class: calming, balancing
aroma type: citrus
skin type: oily, blemished, normal to
combination
traditional use: antiseptic, deodorant,
perfume, soothing agent, skin conditioner
blends well with: chamomile, coriander,
cypress, geranium, juniper, lavender, lemon, neroli, ylang ylang
Safety Information: photo toxic

Main Constituents:- Linalyl, acetate, linalol, sequiterpenes,
terpenes, furocoumarins.

 

Birch, Sweet.
Betula lenta, B. capinefolia (Family, Betulaceae)

This has a sweet, bracing aroma. It is said to be effective
on arthritic and muscular pain and can be a stimulant to the circulation,
but is rarely used in Aromatherapy. Warning Is
slightly toxic and smells like Sweets. Keep secure.
 

Birch, White.
Betula alba (Family, Betulaceae)

Can help to clear the skin and help with psoriasis and
ezcema. Believed to assist in removing toxins and boosting the circulation.
Source: wood and bark, France
production method: steam distillation
aroma type: woodsy
traditional use: soothing agent, muscle
relaxant
blends well with: patchouli, vetiver, copaila
Safety Information: should be avoided by
pregnant women

Black Current Seed & Bud
Rives nigrum (Family, Grossulariaceae)

This Asian and European plant provides oil from the seeds
and the buds, The seed oil is used as an up to 20% carrier oil addition and
bud oil is a very expensive ingredient for perfumery and in foods. The seed
oil has been used in PMS problems. The berry is a very high source of
Vitamin C.

 

Black Pepper
Piper nigrum (Family, Piperceae)
Perfume Note=Middle

With a pungent aroma it stimulates and tones. Warming oil
during the cold winter season. Ideal for massaging on abdomen and muscles.
Use in pre-sports or dance rub to help maintain suppleness. One of the
earliest used spices, Interesting effects happen when it is used in perfume
blends. It blends well with Rose, Rosemary, Marjoram and Lavender, but
should only be used in small amounts. Warning
Black Pepper can be a skin irritant, so must be used with care.
Source: fruits, India and Indonesia
production method: steam distillation
aroma type: spicy
traditional use: muscle relaxant, aphrodisiac
blends well with: olibanum, sandalwood,
lavender, rosemary, marjoram

Main Constituents:- Thujene, pinene, camphene, sabinene,
carene, myrcene, limonene, phellandrene, beta-caryohyllene.

 

Borage

Borago officinalis (Family, Boraginaceae)

From the seeds this oil is high in GLA (gamma-linoleic
acid), reputed to slow down the skins aging processes. It isused as part
of a carrier oil, to 25%

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Brazil nut
Bertholletia excelsa (Family, Lecythidaceae)

Another nut carrier oil from the Amazon. As it is liable
to become rancid quickly this oil needs special attention to storage in a
dark cool place.

 

Cabreuva
Myrocarpus fastigiatus (Family, Fabaceae)

The oil of this South American tree has warming and calming
characteristics with claimed aphrodisiac qualities. Believed to be a good
oil for clearing the mind and increasing alertness.

 

Cade
Juniperus oxycedrus (Family, Cupressaceae) Source:
wood, France
production method: steam distillation

Used by vets for parasitic skin problems, for lice etc. Also
used in perfumery for men and as a food flavouring for a smoky taste.

 

Cajaput
Melaleuca cajaputi (Family, Myrtaceae)
Perfume Note=Top

Improves mood, increases resistance to infections. A good
'unwinding' oil. Can be used in a Steam inhalation to help clear the nasal
passages, also helpful when treating oily skin and spots. Warning
Cajaput is a stimulant and an irritant and must be used with care.
Source: leaves and stems, Indonesia
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: soothing, stimulating,
energizing
aroma type: camphoraceous
skin type: blemished
traditional use: antiseptic, deodorant, insect
repellent
blends well with: bergamot, birch, cardamon,
clove, geranium, lavender, myrtle, nutmeg, rose, thyme

Main Constituents:- Cineol, terpoineol, pinene, eucalyptol,
nerolidol.

 

Calendula
Calendula officinalis (Family, Asteraceae)

Good for skin infections, wounds, rashes, bites and
inflammations. Also used for other inflammations, e.g. hemorrhoids and
rheumatism. (See also Marigold.)

 

Calamint (catnip)
Calamintha clinopodium, C. grandiflora, C. officialis,
Nepeta cataria, Saurreja calamintha (Family, Lamiaceae)

Turn your feline friend into a nutter.. :-) Cats do become
out of it in the presence of Catmint. Humans also have their moods uplifted
and it is supposed to improve mental clarity and alertness. Aids in pain
reduction.

 

Calamus (Sweet Flag)
Acorus calamus, Calamus aromaticus (Family, Araceae)

An ancient herb that has been used for over 4000 years.

WarningThe Calamus that grows
in India contains a high component of asarone, which is potentially toxic
and carcinogenic. The plants from North America and Russia have been grown
to not contain the asarone.

 
Calophyllum
Calophyllum inophullum (Family, Guttiferae)

This Asian nut yields a high percentage of its weight as an
oil. Sometimes used as a carrier oil though it is quite thick in
consistency.

 

Camphor White
Cinnamomum camphora (Family, Lauraceae)

Can be used to care for oily or spotty skin and also as an
insect repellent. Also used in detergents, soaps, disinfectants, deodorants,
room sprays etc.
Source: wood, Japan, China
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: balancing, stimulating,
toning, cooling
aroma type: camphoraceous
traditional use: deodorant, soothing agent,
skin conditioner, aphrodisiac, muscle relaxant
blends well with: olibanum, ylang ylang,
orange, mandarin
Safety Information: Camphor should be used
sparingly and completely avoided by those suffering from epilepsy, and
should be avoided by pregnant women

 

Canola (rapeseed)
Brassica napus (Family, Brassicaceae)

From the seeds of the plant this oil is used in cooking and
as a carrier. The original species contained up to 40% erucic acid which was
harmful to the Thyroid, Kidneys and other internal organs. The modern
genetically altered species only contains about 1% of the Toxic acid.

 

Cananga
Cananga odorata (Family, Annonaceae)

The oil from the flowers of this tree is calming and a mood
uplifting euphoric. Used by some to relax the muscles. This has
anti-depressant qualities.
Source: flowers, Java
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: balancing
aroma type: floral
traditional use: deodorant, skin conditioner
blends well with: bergamot, lavender, lemon,
neroli, palmarosa, sandalwood, vetiver, ylang ylang

Caraway
Carum carvi, Apium carvi (Family, Apiaceae [Umbelliferae])

An oil sometimes included in "Love Potions". Can
help circulation and intestinal problems. Good for the skin and decreases
bruising.
Source: seeds, Holland
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: stimulating
aroma type: minty
traditional use: muscle relaxant
blends well with: galbanum, eucalyptus,
rosemary
Safety Information: slight dermal toxicity

Cardamom Seed
Elettaria cardomum (Family, Zingiberaceae)
Perfume Note=Top

The sweet, spicy, warming fragrance of cardamom has been
enjoyed since the days of the ancient Egyptians, who used it as a perfume
and incense. It can be used as an aid to digestion and makes an excellent
bath oil as a tonic which refreshes and invigorates. Also use a lot,
sparingly, in cooking and also perfumes.
Source: seeds, Central America
production method: steam distillation & CO2
aromatherapy class: stimulating, toning
aroma type: spicy
traditional use: muscle relaxant, skin
conditioner, soothing agent
blends well with: coriander, olibanum,
galbanum, geranium, juniper berry, lemon, myrtle

Main Constituents:- terpinyl acetate, cineol, liminene,
sabinene, linalol, linalyl acetate, pinene, zingiberene.

 

Carnation (Clove Pink)
Dianthus caryophyllus (Family, Caryophyllaceae)

The flowers of this plant are at their most aromatic in
early evening. A nice aroma to have around when you are "down".
This oil is normally only found as an absolute. Reputedly an aphrodisiac.
Safety Information: Can irratate sensitive
skins, use sparingly.

Main Constituents:- Benzyl benzoate, eugenol, phenylethyl
alcohol, benzyl salicylate, methyl salicylate.

 

Carrot seed & root
Daucus carota (Family, Apiaceae [Umbeliferae])
Perfume Note=Middle

From the seed, this essential oil has the same sweet, earthy
fragrance of the vegetable. Considered to be particularly beneficial for
dry, mature skin-types and will can help to restore elasticity to the skin
and could therefore reduce wrinkles. The root oil is used in food colouring,
(yellow), and in sun tan lotions.
Source: seeds, India
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: stimulating, toning
aroma type: spicy
traditional use: muscle relaxant, soothing
agent, skin conditioner, aphrodisiac
blends well with: bergamot, juniper berry,
lavender, lemon, lime, neroli, orange, petitgrain, rosemary

Cashew nut
Anacardium occidentale (Family, Anacardiaceae)

This oil from Latin America and Asia is added as 20% to
carriers

 

Cascarilla Bark
Croton eleuteria (Family, Euphorbiaceae)

This is a stress reducing oil, and is good for meditation.
Widely used in fragrances, soaps, detergents and in foods and drinks. Also
used in cigarettes. Warning Do not use any oil
from the seeds as this oil is a strong purgatory.

 

Cassia
Cinnamomum cassia, C. aromaticum, Laurus cassia (Family,
Lauraceae))
Perfume Note=Middle(only room
scent)

Distinctly spicy like cinnamon bark. Used to flavour all
kinds of food and toothpaste, mouthwash and chewing gum. Warning
Cassia is very irritating to the skin and can cause an allergic reactions.

 

Cassie
Acacia farnesiana, Cassia ancienne (Family,
Mimosaceae)

This is used in perfumery, for rheumatic symptoms and for
chest ailments.

 

Castor
Ricunus communis (Family, Euphorbiaceae)

Native to India, Castor has been used for centuries. Eating
the nuts can be fatal, one to five nuts can kill a child. The oil is
extracted at a low temperature to keep the Ricin from being in the oil. Used
as an analgesic, clearing blackheads and for dandruff.

 

Catnip
Nepeta cataria Var citriodora (Family, )
Source: aerial parts, France, United States,
Yugoslavia

Many varieties exist.

No formal testing.

 

Cedar Leaf
Thuja, occidntalis
Source: leaves and stems, United States
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: calming
aroma type: aromatic
traditional use: deodorant, astringent,
soothing agent
blends well with: lavender, lavandin, rosemary,
armoise

Cedarwood
Juniperus mexicana scheide (Family, Pinaceae)
Perfume Note=Base

With a woody balsamic aroma. It is used in perfumes to add
body and a warm note to any blend. And as Cedarwood Virginia
therapeutically.

Cedarwood (Atlas)
Cedrus atlantica (Family, Pinaceae)

This highly prized wood has been used throughout history for
its strength and aroma. This oil helps to clear the breathing passages and
is used in hair and skin care products.

Main constituents:- Atlantone, caryophyllene, cedrol,
cadinene.

Cedarwood Virginia
Juniperus virginiana J. communis(Family, Cupressaceae)
Perfume Note=Base

Soothes and harmonises. Recognised as a therapeutic oil from
ancient times. An astringent oil useful for protection and caring for oily
and blemished skin, and as an inhalant relieves mucoussy coughs and colds.
Helps to combat cellulite, use in wardrobe to repel moths. It makes a
pleasant warm and woody room fragrance, the Tibetans use it as temple
incense. Warning Use Cedarwood during pregnancy
only in moderation.
Source: wood, United States
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: balancing, grounding,
energizing
aroma type: woodsy
traditional use: antiseptic, skin conditioner,
deodorant, insect repellent, soothing agent
blends well with: patchouli, vetiver,
sandalwood
Main constituents:- Cedrene, cedrol, cedrenol.

Celery Seed
Alpium graveolens (Family, Apiaceae [Umbelliferae])

A sweet spicy aroma. It may stimulate milk flow, balance
hormones, relieve liver and elimination system problems.
Source: seeds, India
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: stimulating, toning
aroma type: spicy
traditional use: blends well with: basil,
cajeput, chamomile, grapefruit, guaicwood, lemon, orange, palmarosa,
rosemary

Chamomile, German
Matricaria chamomilla or M. recutia (Family,
Asteraceae [Compositae])
Perfume Note=Middle

An Absolute. German chamomile AKA blue chamomile or
chamomile matricaria. The blue color is from azulene which is formed during
the distillation of the oil. The odor is sweet and adds a warm, long-lasting
undertone in perfumes. All the Chamomiles are used in massage oils and
herbal mixtures.
Source: flowers, Germany
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: soothing, toning
aroma type: fruity
skin type: sensitive, blemished
traditional use: muscle relaxant, soothing
agent, skin conditioner, aphrodisiac
blends well with: bergamot, jasmine, labdanum,
neroli, clary sage, rose

Main constituents:- Chamazulene, (Produced during steam
distillation, not present in the fresh plant), bisabolol oxide,
enyndicycloether, farnesene.

Chamomile Roman
Chamaemelum nobile or Anthemis noblis (Family,
Asteraceae [Compositae])
Perfume Note=Middle
Illustration
by Diana Lambourne

Well known for its strong soothing effect on mind and body.
The Roman and German are excellent for protecting dry skin. They have many
uses e.g. can be used to treat nerve, headache, insomnia, menstrual
disorders and the Roman is a comforting oil during high pollen count.(Unless
you have an allergy to the ragweeds). A gentle oil suitable for the young
and fragile. One of the few essential oils that can be used on inflamed skin
conditions. Blends well with Lavender, bergamot, jasmine, neroli, and clary
sage. Read the Aromatherapy books for their varied uses.
Source: flowers, Europe
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: calming
aroma type: fruity
skin type: sensitive
traditional use: muscle relaxant, skin
conditioner
blends well with: galbanum, eucalyptus,
rosemary

Main constituents:- Esters, pinene, fanesol, nerolidol,
chamazulene, pinocarvone, cineol.

Chamomile Moroc (Sauvage)
Anthemis mixta, Ormenis mixta, O. multicaulis
(Family, Asteraceae)

Not a true Chamomile, nevertheless it is used as a calming
oil, both mentally and for intestinal symptoms.
Source: blossoms, Morocco
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: balancing, soothing,
calming, toning
aroma type: aromatic
skin type: sensitive
traditional use: muscle relaxant, skin
conditioner
blends well with: cypress, labdanum, lavandin,
lavender, vetiver, cedarwood, olibanum

Champaca Flower & Leaf
Michelia alba, M. champaca (Family, Magnoliaceae)

AKA Frangipani, this oil is another one for mental clarity
and alertness, it also has euphoric and calming properties.

Cinnamon (Bark & Leaf)
Cinnamomum zeylanicum, C verum, Laurus cimmamomum (Family,
Lauraceae)
Perfume Note=middle (only
room scent)

Warms and stimulates. A strong antiseptic, it has a
cleansing effect. Used as a comforting oil during the cold season, A lovely
room fragrance, especially during Xmas.
Source: leaves and stems, Ceylon
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: stimulating, energizing
aroma type: spicy
traditional use: anti-inflammatory agent,
aphrodisiac, skin conditioner, deodorant
blends well with: caraway, citrus oils, clove,
myrtle, nutmeg, olibanum
Safety Information: can cause skin irritation;
moderate dermal toxicity

Main constituents:- (Bark oil), Cinnamaldehyde, eugeno,
benzaldehyde, pinene, cineol, phellandrene, furol, cymene, linalol. (Leaf
oil) Eugenol, eugenol acetate, cinnamaldehyde, benzyl benzoate, linalol.

Citronella
Cymbopogon nardus, Andropogon nardus (Family, Poaceae
[Gramineae])
Perfume Note=Top

Light, fresh and uplifting oil, obtained from the grass, it
is a natural deodoriser, and is useful as an insect and cat repellent.
Source: aerial parts, Java
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: soothing
aroma type: citrus
traditional use: insect repellent, skin
conditioner
blends well with: bergamot, lemon, orange,
lemongrass

Clary Sage
Salvia sclerea (Family, Lamiaceae [Labiatae])
Perfume Note=Top/Middle

Soothes, relaxes and warms. uplifts the spirit. Contains a
hormone-like compound similar to oestrogen that regulates hormonal balance.
Massage on muscles and on abdomen before and during menstruation. Induces
feeling of well-being. Can provoke dramatic and colourful dreams.... helpful
with oily hair and skin, dandruff and treating wrinkles. Sensual properties.
Source: flowering tops, Morocco
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: balancing, calming, toning
aroma type: herbaceous
skin type: normal to combination
traditional use: skin conditioner, astringent,
soothing agent, aphrodisiac, muscle relaxant
blends well with: cedarwood, labdanum, citrus
oils, lavender lavandin Safety Information Do
not use during pregnancy. Do not drink alcohol or drive.

Main constituents:- Linalyl acetate, linalol, pionene,
myrcene, sclareol, phellandrene.

Clove (Bud, Leaf & Stem)
Syzygium aromaticum, Eugenia caryophyllata, E. aromaticia,
E. caryophyllus (Family, Myrtaceae)
Perfume Note=Middle (room
scent only)

An antiseptic and stimulating oil useful in mouthwash and
gargle. Comforting rubbed onto gums, traditionally used to relieve
toothache. Could be an effective mosquito repellent. Warning
Clove is a powerful skin irritant and should be used carefully. Do not use
during pregnancy.
Source: flowers, Madagascar
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: stimulating, energizing
aroma type: spicy
traditional use: muscle relaxant, soothing
agent
blends well with: basil, black pepper,
cinnamon, citronella, grapefruit, lemon, nutmeg, orange, peppermint,
rosemary, rose
Safety Information: use ½ recommended dilution
or less; can cause skin irritation

Main constituents:- (Clove bud) Eugenol, eugenyl acetate,
caryophyllene. (Clove Leaf) Eugenol, some eugenyl acetate.

Coffee
Coffea arabica (Family, Rubiaceae)

Yes there is a Coffee EO, and is a stimulant as is the
drink. Supposed to be mood uplifting, energising and to improve mental
clarity. Warning This is an adrenal gland and
nervous system stimulant so should be used with caution.

Copaiba
Copaifera officinalis(Family, Fabaceae)

Both a Resinoid and an EO is obtained from the tree, Good
for increasing circulation, stress reduction, clearing out the air passages
and as a fixative in perfumery.

Coriander
Coriandum sativum (Family, Apiacea [Umbelliferae])
Perfume Note=Top

A sweet-smelling, spicy essence. It makes a good massage
blend to relieve stiffness and muscle ache. In the bath it is refreshing and
stimulating. Warning Due to its slight toxicity
this oil should be used sparingly.
Source: seeds, France
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: warming, stimulating
aroma type: spicy
traditional use: muscle relaxant, deodorant,
soothing agent, aphrodisiac
blends well with: bergamot, black pepper,
cinnamon, citronella,
cypress, galbanum, giner, jasmine, lemon, neroli, orange

Main constituents:- Linalol, decyl aldehyde, borneol,
geraniol, carvone, anethole.

Cornmint
Mentha arvensis (Family, Lamiaceae)

One of the Mint family, this can be used to assist in
clearing the air passages. Some say it is useful in speeding up the
metabolism, and for refreshing, reviving, energising, and generally
sharpening the senses. Warning Can be
irritating to the skin and can overstimulate the nervous system.

Costus
Saussurea costus, S. lappa (Family, Asteraceae)

A calming oil used in flavourings and perfumery.

Cubeb
Cubeba officinalis, Piper cubeba (Family, Piperaceae)

This spicy oil is used to increase circulation, improve
digestion, clear out the sinus and breathing passages and relieve aches and
pains.

Cumin
Cuminum cyminun, C. odorum (Family, Apiaceae [Umbelliferae])

A sharp, spicy aroma. May be used for those who have mental
or physical exhaustion. Could stimulate the metabolism of those who are
obese and/or have excessive fluid. Warning May
be slightly photosensitising or irritating to some skins.

Cyperus (Cypriol)
Cyperus scariosus (Family, Cyperaceae)

This is the sedge grass used to make papyrus, cloth and
fragrances. A tonic for the digestive system and an insect repellent.

Cypress
Cupressus sempervirens (Family, Cupressaceae)
Perfume Note=Middle

With its smoky woody fragrance it refreshes, restores and
tones. An astringent oil useful for refreshing and caring for oily and
blemished skin, As an anti-perspirant it is good for sweaty feet. Massage on
abdomen during menstruation and where there is cellulite. Good menopausal
oil. Natural deodorant. Blends well with Lavender and Sandalwood.
Source: leaves and stems, France
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: stimulating
aroma type: coniferous
skin type: oily, blemished
traditional use: insect repellent, antiseptic,
astringent, deodorant,
soothing agent, skin conditioner
blends well with: bergmot, clary sage, juniper
berry, lavender,
lemon, orange, rosemary, sandalwood
Safety Information: FLAMMABLE

Main constituents:- Pirene, chmphene, sylvestrene, cymene,
sabinol.

Dill
Anethum graveolens (Family, Apiaceae [Umbelliferae])

Some say can reduce appetite, and, with fennel and baking
soda, is a constituent of "Gripe Water". (Anti-colic water for the
non-British reading this.)

Elecampane
Aster officinalis, Hellenium grandiflorum, Inula helenium
(Family, Asteraceae)

AKA Inula. Used for mood uplifting and to help breathing for
some asthmatics.

Elemi
Canarium commune, C. luzonicum (Family, Bursecracae)

Supposed to help stimulate the immune system, so is a good
oil to use in debilitated persons. Can be an expectorant and so help open up
the air passages. It has been used to help asthmatics. Good for meditation
and during counselling sessions. Aids sleep.

Main constituents:- Phellandrene, dipentene, elemol,
elemicin, terpinol, limonene, pinene.

Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus globulus (Family, Myrtaceae)
Perfume Note=Top

Powerful antiseptic, widely used in baths and massage during
the cold season. Blend oil in chest rubs and use in a vaporiser to keep air
germ free in sick room. Blends well with Lavender and Pine.

There are many more Eucalyptus oils, including; Australian
Eucalyptus, (E. australina); Lemon Eucalyptus, (E. citriodora); Dives or
Broad-Leaved Peppermint, (E. dives); Peppermint Eucalyptus, (E. piperita);
Blue Mallee (E. polybractea); Grey peppermint, (E. radiata); Cully Gum, (E.
smithii) and more.
Source: leaves and stems, Spain
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: toning, stimulating
aroma type: camphoraceous
skin type: blemished
traditional use: deodorant, antiseptic,
soothing agent, skin conditioner, insect repellent
blends well with: coriander, juniper berry,
lavender, lemon, lemongrass, thyme

Main constituents:- Cineol, pinene, limonene, cymene,
phellandrene, terpinene, aromadendrene.

Evening Primrose
Centhera biennis

Rich in GLA, vitamins and minerals. Excellent for face and
body massage blends, especially to combat dry, devitalised skin and eczema,
Used by PMT sufferers, internally in small amounts, to ease the symptoms.

Fennel
Foeniculum vulgare, F. officinale, Anethum foeniculum (Family,
Apiaceae [Umbelliferae])
Perfume Note=Top/Middle

Has a sweet aniseed-like aroma which makes it pleasant for
skin care. For massage where there is cellulite and for the digestive
system, especially the dreaded wind. Good for breast firming massage and to
promote milk production, use sparingly. Warning
Fennel can be a skin irritant. Do not use it on young children. Do not use
if pregnant. Do not use if suffering from epilepsy.
Source: fruits, Italy
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: energizing, toning
aroma type: anise
traditional use: antiseptic, aphrodisiac,
soothing agent, muscle relaxant
blends well with: basil, geranium, lavender,
lemon, rose, rosemary, sandalwood
Safety Information: slight dermal toxicity; use
½ recommended dilution or less

Main constituents:- Anethol, anisic acid, anisic aldehyde,
pinene, camphene, estragol, fenone, phellandrene.

Fir Needle
Abies alba (Family, Pinaceae)
Perfume Note=Middle

A Fresh spicy scent. A few drops will remind you of the fir
forests. A festive aroma for a freshly cut Christmas tree. Warning
Dilute well. It can be a skin irritant.

Also:- Canadian Balsam, (A. balsamea); Siberian Fir, (A.
siberica); Hemlock, (Tsuga canadensis); Pine q.v.; Black Spruce, (Picea
mariana); Terebinth, (P. Palustris and others).

Frankincense
Boswellia thurifera or B. carteri (Family,
Burseraceae)
Perfume Note=Base

Also known as "Olibanum" B. papyrifera.
Soothes, warms and aids meditation. It has been used for centuries, and
burnt on alters and in temples. "Creates a 'spiritual'
atmosphere". Comforting oil, by slowing down breathing and controlling
tension it helps to focus the mind. Excellent for toning and caring for
mature/aging skin. (claimed to have rejuvenating qualities [the Egyptians
used it in rejuvenation face-masks.])

Elemi (Canarium luzonicum) is related.
Source: resin, India and France
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: stimulating, toning,
grounding
aroma type: balsamic
skin type: aging/mature
traditional use: skin conditioner, soothing
agent
blends well with: basil, black pepper,
galbandum, geranium, grapefruit, lavender, orange, patchouli, sandalwood

Main constituents:- Pinene, dipentene, limonene, thujene,
phellandrene, cymene, myrcene, terpinene.

Galangal
Alpina officinarum, Languas officinarum (Family,
Zingiberaceae)

A general stimulant with stress reducing properties.

Galbanum
Ferula galbaniflua, F. cummosa, F. rubicaulis
(Family, Apiaceae)

Used more in food flavouring but may aid mature skin types
and assist in clearing congested breathing.
Source: resin, Middle East and France
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: toning, stimulating
aroma type: green
skin type: blemished
traditional use: skin conditioner, muscle
relaxant
blends well with: citronella, elemi, olibanum,
jasmine, palmarosa, geranium, ginger, rose, ylang ylang

Main constituents:- CArvone, cadinene, myrcene, cadinol,
limonene, pinene.

Gardenia
Gardenia grandifloria (Family, Rubiaceae)

An absolute and EO is obtained from the flowers. A Mood
uplifting oil.

Garlic
Allium sativum (Family, Lilliaceae)
(more to come) Safety Information: Should not
be used if suffereing from eczema or psorisis. External applical can be
highly irritating to the skin. Can cause colic in babies if taken by
breastfeeding mothers.

Main constituents:- Allicin, sulphides e.g. allylpropyl
disulphide, citral, geraniol, linalol, phellandrene.

Geranium
Pelargonium graveolen (Family, Geraniaceae)
Perfume Note=Middle to Top
Illustration
by Diana Lambourne

A balancing oil for the mind and body. A fresh, floral and
sweet smelling oil it relaxes, restores and maintains stability of the
emotions. An astringent oil excellent for all skin types. Used in skin care
products for both its fragrance and cleansing properties. Useful insect
repellent. For massage where there is cellulite and treating eczema and
psoriasis. Blends well with other floral oils, and, mixed with Lavender and
Bergamot produces a delightful room freshener.

Source: leaves and stems, China
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: balancing, soothing
skin type: oily, dry
aroma type: floral
traditional use: skin refresher, astringent
blends well with: cedarwood, citronella, clary
sage, grapefruit, jasmine, lavender, lime, neroli, orange, petitgrain, rose,
rosemary, sandalwood

Main constituents:- Geraniol, borneol, citronellol, linalol,
termineol,limonene, phellandrene, pinene.

Ginger
Zingiber officinalis (Family, Zingiberaceae)
Perfume Note=Top

Fiery and fortifying. Comforting oil and for massaging on
the muscles. Good for nausea and sickness. Blend with orange for warming
winter baths. Blends especially well with orange and other citrus oils.
Source: roots, China
production method: steam distillation
aromatherapy class: energizing, warming
aroma type: spicy
traditional use: aphrodisiac, astringent
blends well with: cinnamon, coriander, clove,
elemi, eucalyptus, olibanum, geranium, lemon, lime, myrtle, orange,
rosemary, spearmint

Main constituents:- Gingerin, linalol, camphene,
phellandrene, citral, cineol, borneol.

Goldenrod
Solidago ca

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